One solution will be more and more electric trains and trams. The energy to operate the trains and trams comes from overhead line electrification (OLE) network.
Due to safety concerns, and to simplify maintenance, many of the cantilevers in OLE networks will be changed from the traditional steel-aluminum-electrical insulator to GFRP parts, which combine superior electrical insulation with good mechanical properties.
*Hannah Ritchie and Max Roser (2018) – “Urbanization.” Published online at OurWorldInData.org. Go to source